Friday, April 30, 2004

Wolff, Betje

Wolff, the daughter of a prosperous family, ran away with a naval officer at the age of 17, only to return home in a few days, deeply hurt by the experience. In 1759 she married Adriaan

Thursday, April 29, 2004

Yangtze River, Hydrology

The Yangtze basin is comparatively well irrigated; the average yearly rainfall amounts to about 43 inches. Most of the precipitation is brought by the monsoon winds and falls primarily as rain in the summer months. In the mountainous part of the basin the precipitation is mainly snow. Floods, which result from the monsoon rains in the middle and lower parts of the basin,

Wednesday, April 28, 2004

Gerizim, Mount

Arabic �Jabal At-tur, �Hebrew �Har Gerizim, � mountain in Samaria, central Palestine, just south of Nabulus and the site of biblical Shechem. In modern times, it was in mandated Palestine 1923 - 48, and subsequently in Jordan 1950 - 67. Since 1967, it has been part of the West Bank (Judaea and Samaria) territory under Israeli administration. Rising to 2,890 ft (881 m) above sea level, it is a twin of Mt. Ebal (Hebrew Har 'Eval, Arabic Jabal 'Aybal; 3,084 ft [940 m]) just north.

Tuesday, April 27, 2004

Arnold Arboretum Of Harvard University

Major botanical research centre famous for its collection of ornamental trees and shrubs from Asia. Founded in 1872, the arboretum consists of 265 acres (107 hectares) at Jamaica Plain in Boston, and it has another 106-acre (43-hectare) installation at Weston, Massachusetts, U.S. The Arnold Arboretum has acquired and cultivated more than 6,000 types of woody plants during its history; by the

Monday, April 26, 2004

Syria, Air transport

Syria has international airports at Damascus and Aleppo and domestic airports at al-Qamishli, Latakia, Dayr az-Zawr, and Tadmur. The facilities at Damascus and Aleppo can handle jet aircraft. International services connect Syria with Arab, other Asian, and European countries. Domestic services are provided by Syrian Arab Airways.

Sunday, April 25, 2004

Hendricks, Thomas A(ndrews)

From 1863 until his death Hendricks was prominent in national Democratic politics. He was the vice-presidential running mate of Samuel J. Tilden in the disputed election of 1876, losing by the decision of a special Electoral Commission. In 1880 he expressed interest in becoming a presidential nominee but was unsuccessful. Nominated as vice president again in 1884, he was finally elected with Cleveland but died less than nine months after his inauguration.

Saturday, April 24, 2004

John The Apostle, Saint

The son of Zebedee, a Galilean fisherman, and Salome, John and his brother James were among the first disciples called by Jesus. In the Gospel According to Mark he is always mentioned

Friday, April 23, 2004

Mammal, Respiratory system

Closely coupled with the circulatory system is the ventilatory (breathing) apparatus, the lungs and associated structures. Ventilation in mammals is unique. The lungs themselves are less efficient than those of birds, for air movement consists of an ebb and flow, rather than a one-way circuit, so a residuum of air remains that cannot be expired. Ventilation in mammals

Thursday, April 22, 2004

Earth, Magnetospheric substorms - unbalanced flux transfer

Magnetospheric substorm is the name applied to the collection of processes that occur throughout the magnetosphere at the time of an auroral and magnetic disturbance. The term substorm was originally used to signify that the processes produce an event, localized in time and space, which is distinct from a magnetic storm. During a typical three-hour substorm, the

Wednesday, April 21, 2004

Alexander Ii

He studied under Lanfranc at Bec. As bishop of Lucca he worked for the abolition of simony and the enforcement of clerical celibacy. Though he was elected pope, the German court nominated Peter Cadalus of Parma as Honorius II, and Alexander was not recognized by the empire until 1064. In 1062 the antipope was dropped by the German regents, and

Tuesday, April 20, 2004

D�hlie, Bj�

Norwegian cross-country skiing legend Bj�rn D�hlie rocketed into the record books in 1998 by shattering the previous marks for gold medals and total medals won by an individual in Winter Olympics competition. With victories at the 1998 Games in Nagano, Japan, in the 10-km race, 50-km race, and 4 �10-km relay, he established himself as one of the greatest Nordic skiers of all time. "The Rocketman,"

Monday, April 19, 2004

Cohnheim, Julius Friedrich

At the Pathological Institute, Berlin (1865 - 68), Cohnheim was an outstanding pupil of Rudolf Virchow, founder of the science of pathology. While assisting him, Cohnheim

Sunday, April 18, 2004

Great Bahama Bank

Large shoal off The Bahamas, separated from Little Bahama Bank (north) by Northwest Providence Channel. Its shallow waters extend southeast from Miami, across the Straits of Florida, in a broad curve about 330 miles (530 km) long, between Cuba and Andros Island. The edge of the bank drops off precipitously into great depths. The marine life is abundant and varied, making it a prized

Saturday, April 17, 2004

Allen, Bog Of

Irish �M�in Al�ine� group of peat bogs between the Liffey and the Shannon rivers in east-central Ireland in Counties Kildare, Offaly, Laoighis, and Westmeath. Some 370 square miles (958 square km) in area, it is developed extensively for fuel for power stations; the cutover land is used for grazing. The bogs are traversed by the Grand and Royal canals, the latter no longer in use. An early monastic site

Friday, April 16, 2004

Sweatshop

Workplace in which workers are employed for long hours at low wages and under unhealthy or oppressive conditions. In England, the word �sweater� was used as early as 1850 to describe an employer or middleman who exacted monotonous work at very low wages. Sweating first became widespread in the United States during the 1880s, when immigrants from eastern and southern Europe

Thursday, April 15, 2004

Race, India's caste system

India has a huge population encompassing many obvious physical variations, from light skins to some of the darkest in the world, from straight coarse hair to frizzled and crinkly hair, and a wide variety of facial features. In addition, the Hindu sociocultural system is divided into castes that are exclusive, hereditary, and endogamous. They are also ranked and unequal

Wednesday, April 14, 2004

Pyrargyrite

A sulfosalt mineral, a silver antimony sulfide (Ag3SbS3), that is an important source of silver, sometimes called ruby silver because of its deep red colour (see also proustite). The best crystallized specimens, of hexagonal symmetry, are from St. Andreasberg in the Harz Mountains and from Freiberg, both in Germany; and Colquechaca, Bol. It is mined at Guanajuato, Mex., and near

Tuesday, April 13, 2004

Iron Cross,

Originally, the Cross had three classes,

Monday, April 12, 2004

Alekseyev, Mikhail Vasilyevich

The son of a private soldier, Alekseyev entered the Russian Army in 1876 and was graduated in 1890 from

Sunday, April 11, 2004

Carisbrooke

Locality on the Isle of Wight, historic county of Hampshire, England. It lies just southwest of Newport. The locality's chief landmark is a great castle on a steep hill that shows three main periods of building - Roman, Norman, and Elizabethan. The remnants of a 3rd-century-CE Roman fort became the site of a Norman castle in the late 11th century. Further walls were added over the

Saturday, April 10, 2004

Basellaceae

The Madeira-vine family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with 4 genera and 15 to 25 species of herbaceous perennial vines, distributed primarily in the New World tropics. Members of the family have fleshy, untoothed leaves, tuberous rootstocks, and red or white flowers in branched or unbranched clusters. Madeira-vine, or mignonette-vine (Anredera

Friday, April 09, 2004

'abd Allah

'Abd Allah followed his family's vocation for religion. In about 1880 he became a disciple of Muhammad Ahmad, who announced that he had a divine mission, became known as al-Mahdi, and appointed 'Abd Allah a caliph (khalifah). When al-Mahdi died

Thursday, April 08, 2004

Tarafah

Little is known with any certainty of Tarafah's life. He is traditionally acknowledged to have been an extraordinarily precocious poet,

Wednesday, April 07, 2004

Cynewulf

Also spelled �Cynwulf, or Kynewulf � author of four Old English poems preserved in late 10th-century manuscripts. Elene and The Fates of the Apostles are in the Vercelli Book, and The Ascension (which forms the second part of a trilogy, Christ, and is also called Christ II) and Juliana are in the Exeter Book. An epilogue to each poem, asking for prayers for the author,

Tuesday, April 06, 2004

Asafetida

Gum resin prized as a condiment in India and Iran, where it is used to flavour curries, meatballs, and pickles. It has been used in Europe and the United States in perfumes and for flavouring. Acrid in taste, it emits a strong onionlike odour because of its organic sulfur compounds. It is obtained chiefly from the plant Ferula foetida of the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae).

Monday, April 05, 2004

Wigglesworth, Michael

Wigglesworth emigrated to America in 1638 with his family and settled in New Haven. In 1651 he graduated from Harvard College, where he was a tutor and a fellow from 1652 to 1654 and again from 1697 to 1705. He preached at Charlestown, Mass., in 1653 - 54 and was pastor at

Sunday, April 04, 2004

Dagestan Rug

Dagestan rugs are relatively finely woven, with short pile in wool, the warp being of wool and the weft frequently of cotton. Their designs are highly geometric and fragmented, producing the effect of brightly coloured mosaics. There is a wide diversity of patterns,

Saturday, April 03, 2004

Hellenistic Romance

Adventure tale, usually with a quasi-historical setting, in which a virtuous heroine and her valiant lover are separated by innumerable obstacles of human wickedness and natural catastrophe but are finally reunited. A precursor of the modern novel, the Hellenistic romance is the source for classic love stories, such as those of Hero and Leander, Pyramus and Thisbe,

Friday, April 02, 2004

Basildon

New town, Basildon district, administrative and historic county of Essex, England. Basildon new town was established in 1949. It was one of eight established 20 to 30 miles (32 to 48 km) from central London to help alleviate the city's acute post-World War II housing shortage. More than 230 factories have been built and nearly 400 shops, with more than 200 in the town centre. Pop. (1991) 100,924.

Thursday, April 01, 2004

Kango

Town, northwestern Gabon. The town is situated about 50 miles (80 km) east of Libreville and lies on the Como River at the head of the Gabon Estuary. Kango is the site of one of Africa's largest cellulose and paper-pulp factories, which was built in the 1970s to process products of the surrounding forest. The factory draws its electric power from the Kingu�l� dam on the Mbei River, a