Monday, May 31, 2004


Fruit of any of several small creeping or trailing plants of the genus Vaccinium (family Ericaceae), related to the blueberries. The small-fruited, or northern, cranberry (V. oxycoccus) is found in marshy land in northern North America and Asia and in northern and central Europe. Its stems are wiry and creeping; the leaves are evergreen, oval or elliptical,

Sunday, May 30, 2004


Also called �Baroda, � city, administrative headquarters of Vadodara district, east central Gujarat state, west central India, on the Visvamitra River, southeast of Ahmadabad. The earliest record of the city is in a grant or charter of AD 812 that mentions it as Vadapadraka, a hamlet attached to the town of Ankottaka. In the 10th century Vadapadraka displaced Ankottaka as the urban centre. It seems also

Saturday, May 29, 2004


Sect of Mahayana Buddhism centring on worship of Amida (in Japanese; Sanskrit Amitabha; Chinese O-mi-t'o-fo), Buddha (Buddha of Infinite Light), whose merits can be transferred to a believer. Amidism holds that the faithful - by believing in Amida, hearing or saying his name, or desiring to share in his Western Paradise - can be reborn in the Pure Land (see Pure Land Buddhism). Originating

Friday, May 28, 2004

Babbage, Charles

In 1812 Babbage helped found the Analytical Society, whose object was to introduce developments from the European continent into English mathematics. In 1816 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London. He

Thursday, May 27, 2004

Hinduism, The Brahmanas and Aranyakas

Attached to each Samhita was a collection of explanations of the rituals, called a Brahmana, which often relied on mythology to trace the origins and importance of individual ritual acts. Although they were not manuals or handbooks in the manner of the later Srauta Sutras, the Brahmanas do contain some detail about the performance and meaning of Vedic sacrificial rituals

Wednesday, May 26, 2004

France, History Of, German aggressions

Meanwhile, Hitler's accession had placed French governments in an increasingly grave foreign-policy dilemma. By 1934 many French leaders believed that a return of �Poincarism� was in order, and Doumergue's foreign minister, Louis Barthou, set out to reinforce and extend France's alliance system. He reaffirmed French ties with Poland and the �Little Entente� countries and

Tuesday, May 25, 2004


Southernmost town and seaport of Western Australia. It lies on the northern shore of Princess Royal Harbour, King George Sound. The naturally broad, deep, sheltered harbour was visited and charted by George Vancouver in 1791. In 1826 the first European settlement in the state, a penal colony called Frederickstown (after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany), was established

Monday, May 24, 2004


City and port, Lower Saxony Land (state), northwestern Germany, on the Jadebusen, a North Sea inlet on the coast of Ostfriesland (East Frisia). Founded in 1853 by Wilhelm I on land bought by Prussia from Oldenburg, it was given its present name in 1869. In 1937 it was united with R�stringen and returned to Oldenburg Land. As the principal naval base for the Prussian (later German) navy, it suffered

Sunday, May 23, 2004

Marsh Cress

Also called �Yellow Cress, � any of the 70 plant species of the genus Rorippa of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Most members of the genus are found in the Northern Hemisphere. The genus has at times been included with the genera Nasturtium and Radicula. Iceland watercress, or marsh yellow cress (R. islandica, sometimes Nasturtium palustre), grows, like others of the genus, in marshy ground. It bears

Saturday, May 22, 2004

Great Circle Route

The shortest course between two points on the surface of a sphere. It lies in a plane that intersects the sphere's centre and was known by mathematicians before the time of Columbus. Until the 19th century ships generally sailed along rhumb lines, which made use of prevailing winds and fixed compass headings. The development of steamships in the 19th century allowed complete

Friday, May 21, 2004

Houssay, Bernardo Alberto

Working with dogs that had been rendered diabetic by excision of the pancreas (1924 - 37), Houssay found that removal

Thursday, May 20, 2004

Cohn, Ferdinand (julius)

Cohn was born in the ghetto of Breslau, the first of three sons of a Jewish merchant. His father spared no effort in the education of his precocious oldest child, and Ferdinand retained a melancholy

Wednesday, May 19, 2004


Resort town situated in the Indian-held sector of Jammu and Kashmir state, in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. Located at an elevation of 8,500 feet (2,600 m), Gulmarg (meaning �meadow of flowers�) displays a breathtaking panoramic view of the whole Vale of Kashmir and of Nanga Parbat, one of the highest peaks (26,660 feet [8,126 m]) of the Himalayas. The valley and mountains may be viewed

Tuesday, May 18, 2004


Town and ski resort, Eagle county, west-central Colorado, U.S. It is located 100 miles (160 km) west of Denver. The town extends about 7 miles (11 km) through the Gore Creek valley in the Gore and Sawatch mountain ranges. Vail was founded by Peter Seibert and Earl Eaton, who, together with other investors, purchased the land and built the resort town in 1962 in the style of a quaint Alpine village.

Monday, May 17, 2004

Race, The problem of labour in the New World

One of the greatest problems faced by settlers in the New World, particularly in the southern colonies, was the shortage of labour. Within a few decades after the settlement of Jamestown, planters had established indentured servitude as the main form of labour. Under this system, young men (and some women) worked for masters, to whom they were indebted for their transportation,

Sunday, May 16, 2004


The city's religious importance derives from the Battle of Karbala' (AD 680) between the Sunnite and Shi'ite sects of Islam. Husayn ibn 'Ali, the Shi'ite leader and grandson of Muhammad, was killed, and his tomb remains one of the greatest Shi'ite shrines and pilgrimage

Saturday, May 15, 2004

Saint Clair River

Outlet for Lake Huron, forming part of the boundary between Michigan, U.S. (west), and Ontario, Can. (east). Flowing southward into Lake Saint Clair, with a fall of 5.7 feet (1.7 m) in 39 miles (63 km), the river discharges through a seven-mouth delta, with the South Channel (27-foot [8-metre] minimum depth) used for deep-drafted vessels. The islands in the delta form popular summer resorts, the largest being

Friday, May 14, 2004

Sunday School

Although religious education of various types had been known earlier within Christianity, the beginning of the modern Sunday school can be traced to the work of Robert Raikes (1736 - 1811), a newspaper publisher

Thursday, May 13, 2004


An amino acid comprising about 1 to 6 percent by weight of the mixture obtained by hydrolysis of most proteins. First isolated from casein (1849), tyrosine is particularly abundant in insulin (a hormone) and papain (an enzyme found in fruit of the papaya), which contain 13 percent by weight. Tyrosine is one of several so-called essential amino acids for certain animals; i.e., they cannot

Wednesday, May 12, 2004

Frederick I

He was the second son of Frederick V, burgrave of N�rnberg. After his father's death, in 1398, he obtained Ansbach and, in 1420, on the death of his elder brother John, the principality of Bayreuth. In 1410 Sigismund, younger son of

Tuesday, May 11, 2004

Giant Mountains

The traditional textile industry - wool, cotton, and

Monday, May 10, 2004

Theatre, The

First public playhouse of London, located in the parish of St. Leonard's, Shoreditch. Designed and built by James Burbage (the father of actor Richard Burbage), The Theatre was a roofless, circular building with three galleries surrounding a yard. It opened in 1576, and several companies performed there, including Leicester's Men (1576 - 78), the Admiral's Men (1590 - 91), and Chamberlain's Men (1594 - 96), who

Sunday, May 09, 2004

Amrouche, Marguerite Taos

Amrouche was the daughter of Fadhma A�th Mansour Amrouche; she was the only sister in a family of six sons and was born after the family had moved to Tunisia to escape persecution after their conversion to Roman Catholicism. Despite this exile, both she and her brother Jean returned to Algeria

Saturday, May 08, 2004

B�lain, Pierre, Sieur D'esnambuc

Born in Normandy, B�lain founded (1625 or 1627) a short-lived French colony on St. Kitts, which was then occupied by the British. He landed on the site of Saint-Pierre, Martinique, on Sept.

Friday, May 07, 2004


Also spelled �Keyri, or K�yri, � in ancient Finnish religion, a feast day marking the end of the agricultural season that also coincided with the time when the cattle were taken in from pasture and settled for a winter's stay in the barn. Kekri originally fell on Michaelmas, September 29, but was later shifted to November 1, All Saints' Day. In the old system of reckoning time, Kekri was a critical period between

Thursday, May 06, 2004

Kabarega Falls

Also spelled �Kabalega, �also called �Murchison Falls, � waterfall on the lower Victoria Nile River in northwestern Uganda, 20 miles (32 km) east of Lake Albert. The Victoria Nile passes through many miles of rapids before narrowing to a width of about 20 feet (6 m) and dropping about 400 feet (120 m) in a series of three cascades. The initial fall of 130 feet (40 m) is generally recognized as Kabarega (Murchison) Falls. The cataract forms the central feature

Wednesday, May 05, 2004


In water-supply systems the term is usually reserved for covered or closed sections of aqueduct, especially those that transport water under pressure. Large conduits may be fabricated of steel sections joined in the field or of reinforced

Tuesday, May 04, 2004

Peter Ii

On succeeding his uncle Peter I, he took the title of Peter II rather than his

Monday, May 03, 2004


Also spelled �adze � hand tool for shaping wood. One of the earliest tools, it was widely distributed in Stone Age cultures in the form of a handheld stone chipped to form a blade. By Egyptian times it had acquired a wooden haft, or handle, with a copper or bronze blade set flat at the top of the haft to form a T. In this form the adz continued to be the prime hand tool for shaping and trimming wood.

Sunday, May 02, 2004

Anderson, Laurie

Anderson began studying classical violin at five years of age and later performed with the Chicago Youth Symphony. In 1966 she moved to New York City, where she attended Barnard College (B.A., 1969) and Columbia University

Saturday, May 01, 2004

Tall Tale

Narrative that depicts the wild adventures of extravagantly exaggerated folk heroes. The tall tale is essentially an oral form of entertainment; the audience appreciates the imaginative invention rather than the literal meaning of the tales. Associated with the lore of the American frontier, tall tales often explain the origins of lakes, mountains, and canyons;