Wednesday, June 30, 2004

Osage River

River rising as the Marais des Cygnes (French: �Swan Marshes�) in the Flint Hills near Eskridge, Kan., U.S. It becomes the Osage (named for the Osage Indians) after its junction with the Little Osage near Rich Hill, Mo., and then flows east through the Ozark highlands to enter the Missouri River near Jefferson City. The river is 500 miles (800 km) long and drains 15,300 square miles (39,600 square km). Along

Tuesday, June 29, 2004

Steel, Variations

In order to lower power consumption, scrap can be preheated in both batch and continuous processes, often utilizing the heat of furnace off-gases. Scrap preheating to 500� C (930� F) cuts power consumption by 40 to 50 kilowatt-hours per ton, and decreases tap-to-tap time and electrode consumption. Sometimes scrap is preheated inside the EAF by oxyfuel burners, but this requires a large

Monday, June 28, 2004


Atom or group of atoms carrying a negative electric charge. See ion.

Sunday, June 27, 2004

Forckenbeck, Maximilian Franz August Von

Elected to the Prussian Chamber of Deputies in 1858, Forckenbeck subsequently helped found the left-liberal German Progressive Party (1861), which after 1862 spearheaded the continuing constitutional struggle over the state military budget with the

Saturday, June 26, 2004


Visigothic chieftain from 364 to 376 who fiercely persecuted the Christians in Dacia (approximately modern Romania). The persecutions occurred between 369 and 372; his most important victim was St. Sabas the Goth. In 376 Athanaric was defeated by the Huns. He fled with a few followers to Transylvania (region in present-day Romania), but the bulk of his people, led by Fritigern, fled to the

Thursday, June 24, 2004

Arts, Native American, Gourd rattles

Agriculture introduced the gourd rattle, which is always shaken by the dancer or singer, never worn. Its shapes and sizes are as varied as those of the squash and gourd, and it is ornamented with ingenuity. The Arizona Papago shaman, sometimes the Iroquois and Cherokee, leaves the stem on as a handle. Usually a wooden handle is inserted, perhaps decorated with beads or

Wednesday, June 23, 2004

Gwynn, Tony

U.S. athlete Tony Gwynn declared 1997 his best year in major league baseball. Few would argue with him. The San Diego Padres right fielder won his 8th batting crown, tying Honus Wagner for the National League record (Ty Cobb held the major league mark with 12), and recorded his 5th consecutive season batting .350 or better with an average of .372; his career average (.340) placed him 14th on the all-time

Tuesday, June 22, 2004

Taff Vale Case

(1900 - 01), in Great Britain, the successful trial of a suit brought by the Taff Vale Railway Company against the Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants (ASRS) in which the courts held that a union could be sued for damages caused by the actions of its officials in industrial disputes. Opposition to the decision did much to spur the growth of the nascent British Labour

Monday, June 21, 2004

Taff Vale Case

American organization, founded in November 1874 in Cleveland, Ohio, in response to the �Woman's Crusade,� a series of temperance demonstrations that swept through New York and much of the Midwest in 1873 - 74. Annie Wittenmyer, an experienced wartime fund-raiser and administrator, was elected president at the WCTU's founding in 1874. During her five-year tenure the WCTU developed a network

Sunday, June 20, 2004

Augustine, Saint

In many ways no less unusual a book than his Confessions, the Retractationes (426 - 427; Reconsiderations), written in the last years of his life, offers a retrospective rereading of Augustine's career. In form, the book is a catalog of his writings with comments on the circumstances of their composition and with the retractions or rectifications he would make in hindsight. (One

Saturday, June 19, 2004


An agreement for the cessation of active hostilities between two or more belligerents. Generally, the terms, scope, and duration of an armistice are determined by the contracting belligerents. An armistice agreement may involve a partial or temporary cessation of hostilities - called a local armistice or truce - established for a variety of specific purposes, such

Friday, June 18, 2004

Kylver Stone

The runes faced the inside of a coffin and probably were intended either to protect the grave or to bind the dead person to it. In addition to the runic alphabet, the rune carver also carved

Wednesday, June 16, 2004

Heinemann, Barbara

The Community of True Inspiration had been founded in 1714 by Pietistic mystics and was revived later by Michael Krausert and Christian Metz. In 1818 Heinemann was �illuminated� with a sense of religious calling. She subsequently

Tuesday, June 15, 2004

Lesser Slave Lake

Lake in central Alberta, Canada, 130 miles (209 km) northwest of Edmonton and 400 miles (640 km) south of Great Slave Lake (in the Northwest Territories). It is 60 miles (97 km) long by 12 miles (19 km) wide and has an area of 451 square miles (1,168 square km). Fed by many small streams, it drains eastward into the Athabasca River via the Lesser Slave River. The name, first used by the Cree Indians, refers to the Slave (Dogrib)

Monday, June 14, 2004

Painting, Western

In the Metal Age, western Mediterranean cultures were similar at many points. The area occupied by them extended from Illyria (the northwestern part of the Balkan Peninsula) in the east to the Atlantic shores of the Iberian Peninsula in the west and from the shores along the Gulf of Lion and the Ligurian Sea (i.e., the coasts of what are now southern France and northwestern

Sunday, June 13, 2004

Abruzzi, Luigi Amedeo Giuseppe Maria Ferdinando Francesco, Duke (duca) D'

The son of King Amadeus of Spain (who was also the Duke d'Aosta in Italy), Abruzzi was the first to ascend Mount St. Elias in Alaska (1897). His 1899 Arctic expedition reached latitude 86�34� N - a record for the time.

Saturday, June 12, 2004

Chamber Music

For well over a century after its inception about 1600, chamber music was supported primarily by the nobility. Aristocratic establishments customarily employed groups of musicians who served as composers, conductors, and performers of a variety of operatic, orchestral, and chamber music; and traditionally the audiences were restricted to the patrons and their guests.

Friday, June 11, 2004

Furniture, Carving

Whereas carving does not appear to

Thursday, June 10, 2004


The date of this play (and even its authorship) is disputed, but many scholars regard it as a work of Aeschylus' last years. In Prometheus Bound (Greek Prometheus desmotes) the god Prometheus, who in defiance of Zeus has saved mankind and given them fire, is chained to a remote crag as a punishment ordered by the king of the gods. Despite his isolation Prometheus is visited by

Wednesday, June 09, 2004


Also spelled �Legazpi, � chartered city, capital of Albay province, southeastern Luzon, Philippines, near an inlet on Albay Gulf. Founded c. 1639, it was named for Miguel L�pez de Legazpi, conquistador and first Spanish governor general of the Philippines. The city lies at the southern base of the active volcanic Mt. Mayon, the 1815 eruption of which killed more than 1,000 people and levelled nearby Cagsawa.

Tuesday, June 08, 2004


Metrical foot consisting of one short syllable (as in classical verse) or one unstressed syllable (as in English verse) followed by one long or stressed syllable, as in the word {breve}be|cause� . Considered by the ancient Greeks to approximate the natural rhythm of speech, iambic metres were used extensively for dramatic dialogue, invective, satire, and fables. Also suited

Monday, June 07, 2004


Arabic� Jazirat Filah (�Philae Island�),� or� Jazirat al-Birba (�Temple Island�),�

Sunday, June 06, 2004


The fundamental building block of all silicate mineral structures is the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron (SiO4)4-. It consists of a central silicon atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms in the shape of a tetrahedron. The essential characteristic of the amphibole structure is a double chain of corner-linked silicon-oxygen tetrahedrons that extend indefinitely parallel

Saturday, June 05, 2004

Jackson, Mercy Ruggles Bisbe

Mercy Ruggles received what was for the time a good education. In June 1823 she married the Reverend John Bisbe, with whom she moved to Hartford, Connecticut, and later to Portland, Maine. After his death in 1829, she supported herself

Friday, June 04, 2004

Eisenstein, Sergey Mikhaylovich

Eisenstein, who was

Thursday, June 03, 2004


The existence of a chemical element in two or more forms, which may differ in the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids or in the occurrence of molecules that contain different numbers of atoms. The existence of different crystalline forms of an element is the same phenomenon that in the case of compounds is called polymorphism. Allotropes may be monotropic,

Wednesday, June 02, 2004

Angola, Resources

Angola's resources are considerable in comparison to those of most African countries, and they are particularly suited to the development of an industrial economy. There are large reserves of oil and natural gas, concentrated in the maritime zones off the Cabinda exclave and the Congo estuary. Total proven recoverable reserves of crude oil stood at more than 2 billion

Tuesday, June 01, 2004

Agustini, Delmira

Agustini was the first woman in Latin-American literature to deal boldly with the themes of sensuality and passion, and her poems have a force lacking from most Modernist poetry of the period. Her life ended tragically when she was murdered by her estranged husband. Her chief