Saturday, July 31, 2004

Aristides The Just

Little is known of Aristides' early life. He appears to have been prominent within the party that favoured resistance to Persia, but in 482 he was ostracized, probably because he opposed Themistocles' plan to use the silver from a new vein of the mines at

Friday, July 30, 2004

Brooks, Louise

Brooks was the daughter of a lawyer, and she danced with the Denishawn company in 1922 - 24 and appeared in Florenz Ziegfeld's Follies on Broadway in 1925. She made her film debut that same year,

Thursday, July 29, 2004

Farm Machinery

The operations of farming for which machines are used are diverse. For

Wednesday, July 28, 2004

Arabian Horse

The Arabian breed is a compact, relatively small horse

Tuesday, July 27, 2004

By, John

By, commissioned as second lieutenant in the Royal Engineers in 1799, worked in Canada (1802 - 11) on the fortification of Quebec and was charged with the building of a canal at Les C�dres on the St. Lawrence.

Monday, July 26, 2004

Anteater

The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), sometimes called the ant bear, is the largest member of the anteater family and is best known from the tropical grasslands (Llanos) of Venezuela, where it is still common. It was once found in the lowland forests of Central America and still occurs in the Amazon Basin southward to the grasslands of Paraguay and Argentina.

Sunday, July 25, 2004

Gruen, Victor

Gruen received his architectural training at the Technological Institute and Academy of Fine Arts, Vienna, and worked under

Saturday, July 24, 2004

Pittsburgh Glass

American glassware produced from the end of the 18th century at numerous factories in that Pennsylvania city. Pittsburgh had the twin advantages of proximity to a source of cheap fuel (coal) and access to a good waterways system, which afforded an inexpensive means of distribution; thus, of the 50 glasshouses that sprang up in Pennsylvania between 1763 and 1850, 40 or more were situated

Friday, July 23, 2004

Akkadian Language

Akkadian spread across an area extending from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf during the time of Sargon (Akkadian Sharrum-kin) of the Akkad dynasty, who reigned from about 2334 to about 2279 BC. By about 2000 Akkadian had supplanted Sumerian as the spoken language

Thursday, July 22, 2004

Monasticism

An institutionalized religious movement whose members attempt to practice works that are above and beyond those required of both the laity and the spiritual leadership of their religions. Generally celibate and universally ascetic, the monastic individual separates himself or herself from general society either by living as a hermit or anchorite (religious

Wednesday, July 21, 2004

Chi-ning

Pinyin �Jining�, Pinyin (Mongolian) �Ulan Qab� town, Inner Mongolia autonomous ch'� (region), China. Before the Communist Revolution of 1949, the town was a minor station named P'ing-ti-ch'�an and was a collecting point on the east-west Peking - Pao-t'ou railway. It experienced phenomenal growth after the completion in 1955 of a trunk railway northward to Erh-lien-hao-t'e on the Mongolian border, linking it with Ulaanbaatar (capital

Tuesday, July 20, 2004

Durango

Although first settled in 1556, it was not officially founded until 1563. It was the political and ecclesiastical capital of Nueva Vizcaya,

Monday, July 19, 2004

Page, Walter

Page played in several bands in the 1920s before forming Walter Page's Blue Devils (1925 - 31) in Oklahoma City, Okla. A historically important early �territory

Sunday, July 18, 2004

Wickerwork

Furniture made of real or simulated osier (rods or twigs) plaited into appropriate shapes. The Egyptians made furniture of this kind in the 3rd millennium BC, and it has always flourished in those regions in which there is a plentiful supply of riverside vegetation. A well-known example of Roman wickerwork is the chair on a 3rd-century-AD relief in the Rheinisches Landesmuseum

Saturday, July 17, 2004

Strathcona And Mount Royal (of Mount Royal And Of Glencoe), Donald Alexander Smith, 1st Baron

Smith was apprenticed to the Hudson's Bay Company in 1838 and worked for many years at the fur trade in Labrador. He served as chief commissioner for the company in Canada from 1870 to 1874, and, after becoming the principal shareholder, he was governor of the Hudson's Bay Company from

Friday, July 16, 2004

Atholl, John Murray, 2nd Earl And 1st Marquess Of, Earl Of Tullibardin, Viscount Of Balquhidder, Lord Murray, Balvany, And Gask

The son of the 1st earl of Atholl in the Murray line, Atholl was the chief supporter of the earl of Glencairn's rising in 1653 but was obliged to surrender a year later to George Monck, the Commonwealth commander in chief in Scotland.

Thursday, July 15, 2004

Bokn Fjord

Norwegian �Boknafjorden,� inlet of the North Sea in Rogaland fylke (county), southwestern Norway. At its mouth, between the southern tip of Karm Island and the northern tip of the Tungenes Peninsula, it is 12 miles (20 km) wide. Bokn Fjord proper extends inland for about 28 miles (45 km). Its principal branches include Skjold Fjord and Sandeid Fjord to the north, Sauda Fjord and Hyls Fjord to the northeast, and Lyse

Wednesday, July 14, 2004

Biblical Literature, I Maccabees

The first two of the four books of Maccabees are deuterocanonical (accepted by the Roman Catholic Church). The First Book of the Maccabees is preserved in the Greek translation from the Hebrew original, the original Hebrew name of it having been known to the Christian theologian Origen of Alexandria. At the beginning, the author of the book mentions Alexander the

Tuesday, July 13, 2004

Apterygote

Broadly, any of the primitive wingless insects of the subclass Apterygota (class Insecta), distinct from the subclass Pterygota or winged insects. Used in this sense, the term apterygotes commonly includes four groups of primitive insects: proturans, collembolans, diplurans (see photograph), and thysanurans. The taxonomic status of these groups, however, remains

Monday, July 12, 2004

Chiastolite

A variety of the mineral andalusite (q.v.).

Sunday, July 11, 2004

Radioactive Series

Any of four independent sets of unstable heavy atomic nuclei that decay through a sequence of alpha and beta decays until a stable nucleus is achieved. These four chains of consecutive parent and daughter nuclei (shown in the figure) begin and end among elements with atomic numbers higher than 81, which is the atomic weight of thallium; the members of each set are genetically

Saturday, July 10, 2004

Domino Whist

Domino game for four players. Partners are drawn for as in the card game whist; the player drawing the highest domino leads. Each player takes seven dominoes, or bones. There are no tricks, trumps, or honours. The bones are played as in ordinary dominoes, a hand being finished when one of the players plays his last bone or when both ends are blocked. Pips are then counted, and

Friday, July 09, 2004

Black Duck

(Anas rubripes), highly prized game bird (family Anatidae) of eastern North America, inhabiting salt, brackish, and freshwater marshes, as well as lakes, rivers, and beaver ponds. These ducks winter from Nebraska to Texas and along the Atlantic coast from Nova Scotia to Florida; their preference for seafoods such as periwinkles and mussels enables them to winter so far

Thursday, July 08, 2004

Himeji

City, Hyogo ken (prefecture), western Honshu, Japan. It is situated west of Kobe, near the Inland Sea. It developed as a castle town around the white, five-storied Himeji, or Shirasagi (�Egret�), Castle, built in the 14th century and reconstructed in 1577 and 1964. A large part of the city was destroyed by bombing during World War II. The city recovered and grew rapidly after the war. It is now the

Wednesday, July 07, 2004

Brunel, Olivier

The first Flemish navigator of the Arctic Ocean, Brunel sailed beyond Lapland in 1565 in search of a northeast

Tuesday, July 06, 2004

Kan River

Chinese �(Wade-Giles) Kan Chiang, �or (Pinyin)� Gan Jiang, � river, chiefly in Kiangsi sheng (province), China. The Kan River is one of the principal southern tributaries of the Yangtze River. Its headwaters rise in Kwangtung province, where the Ta-y� Mountains divide southwestern Kiangsi from Kwangtung. This upper stream is called the Chang River. Another stream, the Kung River, rises in the Chiu-lien Mountains in the far south

Monday, July 05, 2004

Ibb

City, southwestern Yemen, lying in the Yemen Highlands on a spur of the rugged Mount Shamahi, at 6,725 feet (2,050 m) above sea level. The city's origins, according to Arab myth, date to biblical times. The area became important in the Middle Ages, when the Sulayhid princess Sayyidah Arwa ruled over much of Yemen from her capital at nearby Jiblah (11th century AD). Long an administrative capital, Ibb

Sunday, July 04, 2004

Russell Family

A famous English Whig family, the senior line of which has held the title of duke of Bedford since 1694. Originating in Dorset, the family first became prominent under the Tudor sovereigns, John Russell (died 1555) being created earl of Bedford for his part in suppressing a rebellion in 1549 against the Protestant innovations of Edward VI's reign. The family was connected with the

Saturday, July 03, 2004

Lima, Pre-Columbian and colonial periods

The area around Lima has been inhabited for thousands of years. Urban communities of significant size date from the pre-Inca Early Intermediate Period (c. 200 BC - AD 600), the most important being Pachacamac, which was an important religious site in both pre-Inca and Inca times. Much of the ransom demanded by the conquistador Francisco Pizarro for the Inca chief Atahuallpa (Atahualpa)

Friday, July 02, 2004

Lut Desert

Persian �Dasht-e Lut, �also spelled �Dasht-i Lut, � desert in eastern Iran. It stretches about 200 miles (320 km) from northwest to southeast and is about 100 miles wide. In the east a great massif of dunes and sand rises, while in the west an extensive area of high ridges is separated by wind-swept corridors. In its lowest, salt-filled depression - less than 1,000 feet (300 m) above sea level - the summer heat and low humidity are believed to be unsurpassed

Thursday, July 01, 2004

Espinosa, Pedro De

Espinosa's own poetry