Tuesday, August 31, 2004


City, southern Bolivia, situated at 6,122 feet (1,866 m) above sea level in the R�o Grande de Tarija (Guadalquivir) Valley. Founded in 1574 by the conquistador Luis de Fuentes as San Bernardo de la Frontera de Tarija, it is one of Bolivia's oldest settlements. The inhabitants are well known for their outdoor religious processions. Although the city is accessible by air and road, transport

Monday, August 30, 2004

Aquinas, Thomas, Saint

Works on St. Thomas' historical and doctrinal contexts include Pierre Mandonnet, Siger de Brabant et l'averro�sme latin au XIIIme si�cle (1899, reprinted 1976); �tienne Gilson, The Spirit of Medieval Philosophy (1936, reprinted 1991; originally published in French, 1932), The Spirit of Thomism (1964), and History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages (1955); M.D. Chenu, Nature, Man, and Society in the Twelfth Century (1968; originally published in French, 1957); and Fernand van Steenberghen, La Philosophie au XIIIe si�cle, 2nd ed. (1991).

Sunday, August 29, 2004


Also spelled �Parsee, � member of a group of followers in India of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster. The Parsis, whose name means �Persians,� are descended from Persian Zoroastrians who emigrated to India to avoid religious persecution by the Muslims. They live chiefly in Bombay and in a few towns and villages mostly to the north of Bombay, but also at Karachi (Pakistan) and Bangalore (Karnataka,

Saturday, August 28, 2004


Old Paphos, which was settled

Friday, August 27, 2004

Diesel, Rudolf (christian Karl)

Diesel, the son of German-born parents, grew up in Paris until the family was deported to England in 1870 following the outbreak of the Franco-German

Thursday, August 26, 2004


Though only his minor philosophical works have survived, the basic elements of Iamblichus' system can be understood from the references to his teachings in the writings of the 5th-century philosopher Proclus.

Wednesday, August 25, 2004

Great Auk


Monday, August 23, 2004

Arts, Central Asian

This immense

Sunday, August 22, 2004

France, History Of, Institutions

The organization of the secular church took its final form under the Merovingian and Carolingian kings. The administrative bodies and the hierarchy of the early Christian church were derived from institutions existing during the late Roman Empire. In principle, a bishop was responsible for the clergy and faithful in each district (civitas). The bishop whose seat

Saturday, August 21, 2004

Rackham, Arthur

Reared in London, Rackham enrolled in evening classes at the Lambeth School of Art in 1884 and spent seven years studying there while also working full-time in an insurance office. While a staff artist for a newspaper, the Westminster

Thursday, August 19, 2004

Arts, East Asian, The formative period

Sporadic Chinese influence on Korean culture began in the late Neolithic Period, but the influence

Wednesday, August 18, 2004

Afghanistan, Amanollah (1919 - 29)

Amanollah launched the inconclusive Third Anglo-Afghan War in May 1919. The month-long war gained the Afghans the conduct of their own foreign affairs. The Treaty of Rawalpindi was signed on August 8, 1919, and amended in 1921. Before signing the final document with the British, the Afghans concluded a treaty of friendship with the new Bolshevik regime in the Soviet Union; Afghanistan

Tuesday, August 17, 2004

Confederation, Articles Of

First U.S. constitution (1781 - 89), which served as a bridge between the initial government by the Continental Congress of the Revolutionary period and the federal government provided under the U.S. Constitution of 1787. Because the experience of overbearing British central authority was vivid in colonial minds, the drafters of the Articles deliberately established a confederation

Monday, August 16, 2004


In mathematics, principle whereby one true statement can be obtained from another by merely interchanging two words. It is a property belonging to the branch of algebra known as lattice theory, which is involved with the concepts of order and structure common to different mathematical systems. A mathematical structure is called a lattice if it can be ordered in

Sunday, August 15, 2004

Murder, Inc.

In popular usage, an arm of the American national crime syndicate, founded in the 1930s to threaten, maim, or murder designated victims for a price; the organization lacked an official name. Murder, Inc., was headed by Louis �Lepke� Buchalter and later by Albert Anastasia, and its services were available to any syndicate member anywhere in the country. Most victims of Murder,

Saturday, August 14, 2004

China, Constitutional movements after 1905

Japan's victory in the Russo-Japanese War (1904 - 05) aroused a cry for constitutionalism in China. Unable to resist the intensifying demand, the court decided in September 1906 to adopt a constitution, and in November it reorganized the traditional six boards into 11 ministries in an attempt to modernize the central government. It promised to open consultative provincial assemblies

Friday, August 13, 2004

Ruskin, John

English critic of art, architecture, and society who was a gifted painter, a distinctive prose stylist, and an important example of the Victorian Sage, or Prophet: a writer of polemical prose who seeks to cause widespread cultural and social change.

Thursday, August 12, 2004

La Valli�re, Louise-fran�oise De La Baume Le Blanc, Duchess (duchesse) De

La Valli�re, the daughter of a military governor, was appointed maid of honour in 1661 to Louis XIV's sister-in-law Henrietta Anne of England, Duchess d'Orl�ans. Although Louis had been married to the Spanish infanta Marie-Th�r�se for only about a year, he took La Valli�re as his mistress in July 1661. In order

Wednesday, August 11, 2004


Northern Vietnam

Tuesday, August 10, 2004


(Rhynochetus jubatus), nearly extinct and virtually flightless bird of New Caledonia, sole member of the family Rhynochetidae (order Gruiformes). About 55 cm (22 inches) long, it is a chunky bird with loose, gray plumage, including an erectile crest. The bill, legs, and eyes are reddish orange. In courtship the kagu dances with wings spread to show attractive

Monday, August 09, 2004

Biblical Literature, II Maccabees

The Second Book of the Maccabees, or its source, was probably written in the same period as I Maccabees. The book is preceded by two letters to the Jews of Egypt: the first from the year 124 BCE and the second one written earlier (164 BCE) commemorating the rededication of the Temple. In the preface of the book, the author indicates that he has condensed into one book the lost five-volume

Sunday, August 08, 2004

Price, Sammy

Price first toured as a dancer before working in bands in the Southwest and Midwest during the 1920s and '30s. He moved to New York City in 1937, where he became a staff musician

Saturday, August 07, 2004

Mcpherson, James B.

After graduation from West Point at the head of the class of 1849, McPherson was commissioned in the Corps of Engineers and held minor army assignments

Friday, August 06, 2004


Blasting explosive, patented in 1867 by the Swedish physicist Alfred Nobel. Dynamite is based on nitroglycerin but is much safer to handle than nitroglycerin alone. By mixing the nitroglycerin with kieselguhr, a porous siliceous earth, in proportions that left an essentially dry and granular material, Nobel produced a solid that was resistant to shock but readily

Thursday, August 05, 2004

Csokonai Vit�z, Mih�ly

Csokonai's early sympathies with the revolutionary trends of his age made life difficult for him in the wave of reaction that accompanied Napoleon's invasion of Europe. Dismissed after a brief career as an assistant master at the Calvinist college in Debrecen, he became a wandering

Wednesday, August 04, 2004

Hieroglyphic Writing

The system of hieroglyphic writing has two basic features: first, representable objects are portrayed as pictures (ideograms) and, second, the picture signs are given the phonetic value of the words for these represented objects (phonograms). At the same time, these signs are also written to designate homonyms, similar-sounding words. The writing disregards vowels

Tuesday, August 03, 2004

Roman Religion, Religious art

A vast gallery of architecture, sculpture, numismatics, painting, and mosaics illustrates Roman religion and helps to fill the gaps left by the fragmentary, though extensive, literary and epigraphic record. Starting with primitive statuettes and terra-cotta temple decorations, this array eventually included masterpieces such as the Apollo of Veii. Other works

Monday, August 02, 2004

Frame Design

Decorative treatment of frames for mirrors and pictures. Before the 15th century in Europe, frames hardly existed separately from their architectural setting and, with the altarpieces or the predellas they surrounded, formed an integral part of the decorative scheme of the church interior. Such frames were frequently burnished with gold leaf. During the 15th century,

Sunday, August 01, 2004

Robbins (of Clare Market), Lionel Charles Robbins, Baron

Robbins was educated at the University of London and the London School of Economics (LSE). After periods of teaching at New College, Oxford, and LSE, he was appointed professor of economics at the latter university in 1929, a position he held until 1961. Robbins was influenced