Wednesday, September 29, 2004

Epistemology, David Hume

In analytical chemistry, a technique for identifying and quantitatively analyzing the chemical composition of substances by observing the thermal behaviour of a sample as it is heated. The technique is based on the fact that as a substance is heated, it undergoes reactions and phase changes that involve absorption or emission of heat. In DTA the temperature of

Tuesday, September 28, 2004

Nordenflycht, Hedvig Charlotta

The deaths

Monday, September 27, 2004


Machine for cutting grain and binding it into bundles, once widely used to cut small grain such as wheat. The first patent was issued on a self-tie binder in 1850. The horse-drawn twine binder, first marketed in 1880, remained the chief method of harvesting small grain during the early decades of the 20th century. The mechanical twine knotter was patented in 1892 in the United States. Along

Sunday, September 26, 2004

Beissel, Conrad

The posthumous son of a German baker, Beissel experienced a religious conversion at the age of 27 and migrated to America in 1720. He joined the Dunkers in Pennsylvania (1724) but withdrew from them when he became convinced that the day of worship should be the

Saturday, September 25, 2004

Daily World

The Daily Worker was variously the organ and the �semi-official� voice of the party, and its readers have included numerous U.S. government intelligence agents, who also have monitored its list of subscribers. In 1958 the paper became a weekly as The

Friday, September 24, 2004

Theatrical Production, The modern repertory company

During the rise of the stock company and single-show system, there continued to exist highly refined examples of the repertory ensemble. The Com�die Fran�aise, originally an amalgamation of two Parisian troupes, has existed since 1680. In opera the repertory system remains fundamentally unchanged. Toward the end of the 19th century, however, a widespread transformation

Thursday, September 23, 2004

Ucayali River

Spanish �R�o Ucayali, � headwater of the Amazon, formed by the junction of the Apur�mac and Urubamba rivers in east-central Peru. The Ucayali meanders northward from this junction for about 910 miles (1,465 km) through a densely forested floodplain east of the Andes to its junction with the Mara��n River, 55 miles (90 km) south-southwest of Iquitos. This confluence is considered to mark the head of the Amazon.

Wednesday, September 22, 2004

Haavikko, Paavo

With his first collection of poems, Tiet et�isyyksiin (1951; �The Roads That Lead Far Away�), Haavikko demonstrated a rare command of rhythm and image in his virtuoso handling of the language. In his next collection, Tuuli�in� (1953; �In Windy

Tuesday, September 21, 2004


Device that produces and amplifies electromagnetic radiation mainly in the microwave region of the spectrum. The maser operates according to the same basic principle as the laser (the name of which is formed from the acronym for �light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation�) and shares many of its characteristics. The first maser was built by the American

Monday, September 20, 2004

Trade Disputes Act

(1906), British legislation that provided trade unions with immunity from liability for damages arising from strike actions. The background to the statute was a series of adverse court decisions affecting the capacity of trade unions to strike, culminating in the Taff Vale judgment of 1901. That judgment established that unions were legal corporations and as such their

Sunday, September 19, 2004

France, History Of, Foreign affairs

From the beginning of his reign Louis pursued a vigorous foreign policy. Historical opinion has traditionally held that Louis sought to dominate Europe, only to meet his just deserts at the end of his reign. More recently another interpretation has emerged, which argues that Louis pursued consistent and for the most part moderate aims and pursued them successfully

Saturday, September 18, 2004


Town (township), Grafton county, central New Hampshire, U.S. It lies on the Pemigewasset River north-northwest of Laconia, west of Squam Lake, and overlooked (southwest) by Plymouth Mountain (2,187 feet [667 metres]). The town includes the communities of Plymouth and West Plymouth. Chartered in 1763, it annexed parts of Hebron and Campton in 1845 and 1860. Agriculture, lumbering, and light manufacturing

Friday, September 17, 2004

Canada, Flag Of

The establishment of the Canadian federation in 1867 was not accompanied by the creation of a special flag for the country. The imperial Union Jack and other British flags were considered sufficient, although a coat of arms (in the form of a heraldic shield) was granted by Queen Victoria in 1868. The Canadian shield was composed of the arms of the four original provinces - Ontario,

Thursday, September 16, 2004

China, Ch'ing society

Chinese society continued to be highly stratified during the early Ch'ing. Hereditary status groups in the society ranged from the descendants of the Imperial line down to the �mean people� at the bottom of the social ladder. Many professions were hereditary: bannermen, brewers, dyers, doctors, navigators, and Taoist priests usually passed on their occupations to

Wednesday, September 15, 2004

Alaska, Mining

Petroleum was first extracted and refined between 1917 and 1933, but the development of the Kenai oil field in 1961 made the petroleum and natural gas industry Alaska's most important mineral production. Oil seeps were known as early as the 1880s in the North Slope region, which today has become a field of major economic importance to both the state and the nation. Alaska ranks second

Tuesday, September 14, 2004


Exhibiting an extensive range of possible cation substitutions, amphiboles crystallize in both igneous and metamorphic rocks with a broad range of bulk chemical compositions. Because of their relative instability to chemical weathering at the Earth's surface, amphiboles make up only a minor constituent in most sedimentary rocks.

Monday, September 13, 2004


Also spelled �Babesiasis, �also called �Piroplasmosis, � any of a group of tick-borne diseases of animals caused by species of Babesia, protozoans that destroy red blood cells and thereby cause anemia. Cattle tick fever, from B. bigemina, occurs in cattle, buffalo, and zebu. Other Babesia species attack cattle, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys, swine, and dogs. Wild animals such as deer, wolves, foxes, wildcats, and pumas are susceptible

Sunday, September 12, 2004

Gong Xian

Short, broad vertical strokes characterize Gong's paintings, which, like those of Ni Zan in the Yuan dynasty (1206 - 1368), typically contain no human figures; yet in contrast

Saturday, September 11, 2004


Dawani's family claimed descent from Abu Bakr (the first caliph of Islam). He received a traditional Islamic education, first at Dawan, where he studied with his father, who was a qadi (judge), and later in Shiraz. During his career

Friday, September 10, 2004

Brunel, Isambard Kingdom

The only son of the engineer and inventor Sir Marc Isambard Brunel, he was appointed resident engineer when work on the Thames Tunnel began, under his father's direction, in 1825. He held the post until 1828, when

Thursday, September 09, 2004

Aprey Faience

Tin-glazed earthenware produced by the factory of Jacques Lallemant de Villehaut, Baron d'Aprey, established in 1744 on his estate at Aprey, near Dijon, Fr. The early pieces, which are heavy and rather crude, recall blue-and-white earthenware in the Rouen style or have Rococo forms decorated with chinoiseries (motifs influenced by the Chinese), flowers, and birds. From about

Wednesday, September 08, 2004

Eagan, Eddie

After their father died in a railroad accident when Eddie was only a year old, he and his four brothers were raised by their mother, who managed a small income from teaching foreign languages. Inspired by Frank Merriwell,

Tuesday, September 07, 2004

Jili, Al-

Little is known about al-Jili's personal life. Possibly after a visit to India in 1387, he studied in Yemen during 1393 - 1403. Of his more than 30 works, the most famous is Al-Insan al-kamil fi ma'rifat al-awakhir wa al-awa 'il (partial Eng. trans., Studies in Islamic

Monday, September 06, 2004

Edgar The Aetheling

Anglo-Saxon prince, who, at the age of about 15, was proposed as king of England after the death of Harold II in the Battle of Hastings (Oct. 14, 1066) but instead served the first two Norman kings, William I, Harold's conqueror, and William II. His title of aetheling (an Anglo-Saxon prince, especially the heir apparent) indicates he was a prince of the royal family; he was a grandson

Sunday, September 05, 2004

Cumberland Gap

Natural pass (elevation 1,640 feet [500 metres]) that was cut through the Cumberland Plateau in the eastern United States by former stream activity. It is located near the point where Kentucky, Virginia, and Tennessee meet between Middlesboro, Kentucky, and the town of Cumberland Gap, Tennessee. The pass was discovered in 1750 by Thomas Walker, and the Wilderness Road blazed by Daniel

Saturday, September 04, 2004


The name acquired a more specialized meaning in France in the late 17th century, when it referred to upholstered stools provided at the palace of Versailles for the more privileged ladies of the court of Louis XIV to sit

Friday, September 03, 2004

Peru-chile Trench

The Peru-Chile Trench marks the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate

Thursday, September 02, 2004


Quarter and district of the Lima - Callao metropolitan area, north of central Lima, Peru. Created a district in 1921, the site was settled in early colonial days. The Puente de Piedras (�Bridge of Stone�) was built in 1610. Notable colonial landmarks include the promenade and Monastery of the Descalzos (Barefoot Brethren); a building claimed to be the Palace of �La Perricholi� (Micaela

Wednesday, September 01, 2004

Mah� Island

Largest island of the Seychelles archipelago, Republic of Seychelles, in the western Indian Ocean. The island is 4 miles (6 km) wide and 16 miles (26 km) long and has an area of 57 square miles (148 square km). The island is granitic in origin and mountainous; the highest peak is Morne Seychellois, which rises to 2,969 feet (905 m) and forms part of a national park of the same name. Port Launay Marine National