Sunday, October 31, 2004


The most important and largest genus is Berberis, with about 500 species, among which are many ornamentals, including

Saturday, October 30, 2004

Quantz, Johann Joachim

Quantz obtained posts at Radeberg and Dresden and in 1717 studied counterpoint in Vienna with Johann Zelenka and Johann Fux. In 1718 he became oboist in the Polish court

Thursday, October 28, 2004

Waals, Johannes Diederik Van Der

A self-educated man who took advantage of the opportunities offered by the University of Leiden, van der Waals first attracted notice in 1873 with his doctoral

Wednesday, October 27, 2004

Wolfe, Thomas

His father, William Oliver Wolfe, the Oliver Gant of his novels, was a stonecutter, while his mother, Julia Elizabeth Westall Wolfe, the Eliza of the early novels, owned a successful boardinghouse in Asheville, N.C., where Wolfe

Tuesday, October 26, 2004


City, southwestern North Korea. It lies just south of the 38th parallel and northwest of Seoul, South Korea. One of the oldest cities of Korea, Kaesong was the capital of the Koryo dynasty (935 - 1392). It was formerly called Songdo (�City of Pine�), so named because it is surrounded by pine-covered mountains: Songak (2,506 feet [764 m]), Osong (3,483 feet), Nam (584 feet), and Mansu (754 feet). Kaesong is a castle city enclosed by a

Monday, October 25, 2004

Museums, History Of, The spread of the European model

Before the end of the 18th century the phenomenon of the museum had spread to other parts of the world. In 1773 in the United States the Charleston Library Society of South Carolina announced its intention of forming a museum. Its purpose was to promote the better understanding of agriculture and herbal medicine in the area. Another early institution, the Peale Museum, was

Sunday, October 24, 2004


Thomas Lambert, the first European settler, arrived there in 1880, and German colonial authorities established a military post at Outjo in 1895. It became

Saturday, October 23, 2004

Cyprus, Flag Of

For centuries Cyprus was part of the Ottoman Empire and flew Turkish flags. By agreement with the Turkish sovereign, however, the British assumed administrative control of the island in 1878 and subsequently flew the Union Jack there. During World War I the island was annexed by the British, and other colonial flags were then introduced. For example, to the British Red

Friday, October 22, 2004

Kiangsi, Climate

Situated in the subtropical belt, Kiangsi has a hot and humid summer lasting more than four months, except in spots of high elevation, such as Lu-shan. High temperatures in Nan-ch'ang in July and August average 95� F (35� C). In winter temperature variations between north and south are greater. January temperatures in the north at times fall to 25� F (-4� C), while those in the south average

Thursday, October 21, 2004

Chandos, James Brydges, 1st Duke Of, Marquess Of Carnarvon, Earl Of Carnarvon, Viscount Wilton, 9th Baron Chandos Of Sudeley

The son and heir of James Brydges, 8th Baron Chandos of Sudeley, he was a member of Parliament from 1698 to 1714. For eight years (1705 - 13) during the War of the Spanish Succession, he was paymaster general of the forces abroad, whereby he amassed great wealth. Three days after his father's death in 1714, he was created Viscount

Wednesday, October 20, 2004


B�arn's name can be traced to the town of Beneharnum (Lescar). B�arn was conquered by the Vascones (the ancestors of the modern Basques) in the 6th century and in 819 became a viscounty feudally

Tuesday, October 19, 2004

Bara, Theda

Theodosia Goodman attended the University of Cincinnati in 1903 - 05. In New York City she tried briefly

Monday, October 18, 2004

African Literature, Oral traditions

The following works cover and analyze some of the best and most representative collections of oral art forms from many parts of Africa: Uchegbulam N. Abalogu, Garba Ashiwaju, and Regina Amadi-Tshiwala, Oral Poetry in Nigeria (1981), containing articles on a number of different oral genres in contemporary Nigeria; B.W. Andrzejewski and I.M. Lewis, Somali Poetry: An Introduction (1964), a detailed and authoritative account of the main genres and their social context by a linguist and a sociologist; Ulli Beier (comp. and ed.), Yoruba Poetry: An Anthology of Traditional Poems (1970), a good introduction to the rich and complex Yoruba oral traditions; James Stuart (comp.), Izibongo: Zulu Praise-Poems (1968), long poems to kings and chiefs, rich in imagery and allusions, with a discussion of their form, function, and social context; A. Coupez and Th. Kamanzi, Litt�rature de cour au Rwanda (1970), analysis and texts of the royal poetry of the kings of Rwanda and accounts of the poets responsible for them; Pierre Smith (ed.), Le R�cit populaire au Rwanda (1975), 30 popular tales from Rwanda that interpret the history of the region in a different way from the royal praises; M. Damane and P.B. Sanders (eds. and trans.), Lithoko: Sotho Praise-Poems (1974), an authoritative anthology of praise poems of Basotho chiefs, covering 200 years; Francis Mading Deng, The Dinka and Their Songs (1973), a careful account of the performed poetry of the Dinka people of The Sudan; Ruth Finnegan (comp. and trans.), Limba Stories and Story-Telling (1967, reprinted 1981), stories from the Limba of Sierra Leone, with attention to the creative role of individual narrators; Veronika G�r�g-Karady, Noirs et blancs: leur image dans la litt�rature orale africaine: �tude-anthologie (1976), an analysis of a large number of tales exploring the different perceptions of the relations between races that the stories reveal; Olatunde O. Olatunji, Features of Yor�b� Oral Poetry (1984), a full account of the oral genres from the point of view of Yoruba poetics; Denise Paulme, La M�re d�vorante: essai sur le morphologie des contes africains (1976), essays that discuss the social role of the tale and analyze eight archetypal African tales; Jeff Opland, Xhosa Oral Poetry: Aspects of a Black South African Tradition (1983), an analysis primarily of Xhosa praise poetry and poets, incorporating discussion of the interplay of print, literacy, and orality; and Harold Scheub, The Xhosa Ntsomi (1975), an important collection of Xhosa and Zulu stories with an emphasis on the creative role of the storyteller.

Sunday, October 17, 2004

Shehu Ahmadu Lobbo

Influenced by the teachings of the Islamic reformer Usman dan Fodio, he began a holy war (jihad) in 1818 or possibly as early as 1810. He defeated the forces of the pagan Fulani and Bambara chiefs and established a capital at Hamdallahi. His rule extended to the cities

Saturday, October 16, 2004


In the 16th century Mor�n served as a way station for travelers en route to the area that is now Chile and Peru. The present-day county was part of the Pago (country district) de las Conchas during the 17th and early 18th centuries.

Friday, October 15, 2004

Differential Geometry

Differential geometry has its origin in the discovery in the 17th century of the infinitesimal calculus, one part of mathematics that deals with limits. The concept of the derivative of a function is essentially identical with that of the tangent line or slope of a curve, and the integral of a function

Thursday, October 14, 2004

Akosombo Dam

Rock-fill dam on the Volta River, near Akosombo, Ghana, completed in 1965 as part of the Volta River Project. Its construction was jointly financed by the government of Ghana, the World Bank, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The dam rises 440 feet (134 m) above ground level and has a crest 2,201 feet (671 m) wide and a volume of 10,451,000 cubic yards (7,991,000 cubic m). The dam impounds Lake Volta; this huge reservoir

Wednesday, October 13, 2004

Samanid Dynasty

The four grandsons of the dynasty's founder, Saman-Khoda, had been rewarded with provinces for their faithful service to the 'Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun: Nuh obtained Samarkand; Ahmad, Fergana; Yahya, Shash; and Elyas, Herat. Ahmad's son

Tuesday, October 12, 2004

Extenuating Circumstance

Many Anglo-American legal systems do not prescribe minimum punishments for all crimes. The judge is thus free to consider all the circumstances in setting the punishment up to a prescribed maximum. Some special circumstances

Monday, October 11, 2004

Lancisi, Giovanni Maria

Lancisi graduated in medicine from the University of Rome at age 18. He was appointed physician to Pope Innocent XI in 1688 and subsequently was physician to Popes Innocent XII and Clement XI. Lancisi's monographs on influenza, cattle plague (rinderpest), and

Sunday, October 10, 2004

S� De Miranda, Francisco De

The illegitimate son of a canon of Coimbra, Gon�alo Mendes de S�, and Dona In�s de Melo, he was made legitimate in 1490. He studied at the university, which was then in Lisbon, and seems to have lived mainly in the capital until 1521, frequenting the royal court and taking part in the poetical improvisations

Saturday, October 09, 2004

Asma'i, Al-

A gifted student of Abu 'Amr ibn al-'Ala', the founder of the Basra school, al-Asma'i joined the court of the 'Abbasid caliph Harun ar-Rashid in Baghdad. Renowned for his piety and plain living, he was a tutor to the caliph's son and a favourite of the Barmakid

Friday, October 08, 2004


District and borough, Northern Ireland, established in 1973 from portions of Counties Antrim, Down, and Armagh. It is situated south of Lough (lake) Neagh and is bordered by the districts of Dungannon to the west, Armagh to the southwest, Banbridge to the southeast, and Lisburn to the east. Its administrative seat is Craigavon new town. In the northern part of Craigavon district,

Thursday, October 07, 2004

Xeroderma Pigmentosum

Rare, recessively inherited skin condition in which resistance to sunlight and other radiation beyond the violet end of the spectrum is lacking. On exposure to such radiation the skin erupts into numerous pigmented spots, resembling freckles, which tend to develop into multiple carcinomas. The condition may occur in mild or severe forms. Protection from direct

Wednesday, October 06, 2004


Any of several medieval chronicles of Britain tracing the history and legend of the country from the time of the mythical Brutus, descendant of Aeneas and founder of Britain. The Roman de Brut (1155) by the Anglo-Norman author Wace was one such chronicle. Perhaps the outstanding adaptation of the story is Layamon's Brut (c. 1200), written in Middle English; it lent a distinctly Germanic

Tuesday, October 05, 2004

Pereira, Irene Rice

Irene Rice moved a number of times with her family before they settled in Brooklyn, New York City. After exploring other careers, from 1927 to 1930 she studied at the Art Students League in New York. In 1929 she married commercial artist Humberto Pereira,

Monday, October 04, 2004


In Roman religion, god of fire, particularly in its destructive aspects as volcanoes or conflagrations. Poetically, he is given all the attributes of the Greek Hephaestus (q.v.). His worship was very ancient, and at Rome he had his own priest (flamen). His chief festival, the Volcanalia, was held on August 23 and was marked by a rite of unknown significance: the heads of Roman families

Sunday, October 03, 2004

Kazak Language

Also spelled �Kazakh, � member of the Turkic language family (a subfamily of the Altaic languages), belonging to the northwestern, or Kipchak, branch. The Kazak language is spoken primarily in Kazakstan and in the Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang in China but is also found in Uzbekistan, Mongolia, and Afghanistan. The so-called Kipchak-Uzbek dialect is closely related to Kazak and is considered

Saturday, October 02, 2004

Allenby (of Megiddo And Of Felixstowe), Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount

Educated at the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, Allenby joined the Inniskilling Dragoons in 1882 and saw active service in the Bechuanaland expedition (1884 - 85), in Zululand (1888), and in the South

Friday, October 01, 2004

Heikal, Muhammad Hassanein

Educated at Cairo University, Heikal became a reporter for the Egyptian Gazette