Sunday, February 27, 2005


Also called �strobilus� in botany, mass of scales or bracts, usually ovate in shape, containing the reproductive organs of certain non-flowering plants. The cone, a distinguishing feature of pines and other conifers, is roughly analogous to the flower of other plants. Cones (strobili) are also found on club mosses and horsetails.

Saturday, February 26, 2005

China, The civil service

One of the main contributions of the Han dynasty to the future of Imperial China lay in the development of the civil service and the structure of central and provincial government. The evolutionary changes that subsequently transformed Han polity beyond recognition were not directed at altering the underlying principles of government but at applying them

Friday, February 25, 2005

Hei Tiki

Small neck pendant in the form of a human fetus, used by the Maori of New Zealand as a fertility symbol. Usually carved of green nephrite or a jadelike stone called pounamu that is found along the western coast of the South Island, hei tikis normally are worn only by women. The object is believed to possess magical powers that increase as it is passed on from generation

Thursday, February 24, 2005

Domingo, Pl�cido

Domingo's parents were noted performers in zarzuela, a form of Spanish light opera. He grew up in Mexico, where he studied piano at the National Conservatory of

Wednesday, February 23, 2005


Town, Balochistan province, Pakistan. The town is located on the left bank of the Kech River, which is a tributary to the Dasht River. The area in which Turbat is situated is drained to the south by the Dasht River; the Makran Range to the north and east descends to coastal plains in the south. The town is a marketplace for dates grown in the surrounding region and has a date-processing

Tuesday, February 22, 2005

Charadriiform, Auks (suborder Alcae)

Alcids breed in island colonies along Arctic and north temperate seacoasts, with the exception of a few murrelets that breed inland on mountains. Even these must remain within flying distance of the sea. The breeding behaviour of the pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) is fairly typical of the family. This species breeds on islands and coasts of the North Pacific,

Monday, February 21, 2005

Sardinian Language

Sardinian �Sardo� Romance language spoken on the Italian-ruled island of Sardinia; it is most similar to Vulgar Latin of all the modern Romance languages. Major dialects of Sardinian are Logudorian, spoken in central Sardinia; Campidanian, spoken in the south; Sassarian, spoken in the northwest; and Gallurian, spoken in the northeast. There is no standard form of Sardinian except the

Sunday, February 20, 2005

Kagwa, Sir Apolo

A devout Anglican, Kagwa was a leader of the Protestant faction in the civil wars of the Ganda people (1888 - 92). He became katikiro when King Mwanga returned to the throne in 1890 and grew increasingly powerful

Saturday, February 19, 2005

Juba Ii

As a child of about five Juba was paraded in Rome in Caesar's triumphal procession after the death of Juba I but subsequently was given a good education in Italy. Octavian

Friday, February 18, 2005

Nilo-saharan Languages

The original expansion of the Nilo-Saharan family may have been associated with the Aquatic industry. This industry, which dates to the 8th millennium BC, is a conglomeration of cultures that exploited the food resources of lakes, rivers, and surrounding areas from Lake Rudolf in East Africa to the bend of the Niger River in West Africa during a long era of wetter climate

Thursday, February 17, 2005

India, Developments in the Deccan

Toward the last years of Akbar's reign, the Nizam Shahis of Ahmadnagar in the Deccan had engaged the attention of the emperor considerably. The main objective of his intervention in Ahmadnagar was to gain Berar, which had been recently acquired by Ahmadnagar from Khandesh, and Balaghat, which had been a bone of contention between Ahmadnagar and Gujarat. By 1596 Berar was conquered

Wednesday, February 16, 2005

Triceps Muscle

Any muscle with three heads, or points of origin, particularly the large extensor along the back of the upper arm in humans. It originates just below the socket of the scapula (shoulder blade) and at two distinct areas of the humerus, the bone of the upper arm. It extends downward and inserts on (attaches to) the upper part of the ulna, in the forearm. Its major action is extension

Tuesday, February 15, 2005


Many of

Monday, February 14, 2005

Quantity Theory Of Money

Economic theory relating changes in the price levels to changes in the quantity of money. In its developed form, it constitutes an analysis of the factors underlying inflation and deflation. As developed by the English philosopher John Locke in the 17th century, the Scottish philosopher David Hume in the 18th century, and others, it was a weapon against the mercantilists

Sunday, February 13, 2005

Caudata, Bones and cartilage

The rather weak skull of adults is composed of various paired and unpaired bones. These bones may fuse or be lost in different groups, and their presence and arrangement are important in classification. Much of the fusion and loss of skull bones is associated with a trend toward tongue feeding. Small, double-cusped teeth line the margins of the jaw and spread over parts

Saturday, February 12, 2005

Carte, Richard D'oyly

Originally a composer, Carte became a music manager, representing the French composer Charles Gounod. After commissioning Gilbert

Friday, February 11, 2005

San Diego

Port, city, and important U.S. military and naval base, seat (1850) of San Diego county, southern California, U.S. It lies along the Pacific Ocean at San Diego Bay (there bridged to Coronado). Sighted in 1542 and named San Miguel by Juan Rodr�guez Cabrillo, the area was renamed San Diego de Alcal� de Henares in 1602 by Sebasti�n Vizca�no. Gaspar de Portol� founded a presidio (military post) there

Thursday, February 10, 2005


Device for shackling the hands, used by police on prisoners under arrest. Until modern times, handcuffs were of two kinds: (1) the figure 8, which confined the hands close together either in front of or behind the body, and (2) rings that fitted around the wrists and were connected by a short chain, these being somewhat like those used by modern police forces. The old names were

Wednesday, February 09, 2005

Skeleton Sledding

Also called �Cresta sledding� winter sport in which the skeleton sled, or Cresta, consisting of steel runners fastened to a platform chassis, is ridden in a headfirst, prone position. Skeleton sledding competitions are typically held on the same courses used for bobsled contests. It is a dangerous and thrilling sport where riders, with their faces just inches above the icy course, attain speeds

Tuesday, February 08, 2005

Papp, L�szl�

Papp, a former railway clerk, competed as a middleweight (161 pounds [73 kg]) at the 1948 Olympic Games in London. A hard-hitting left-hander, he won the first of his gold medals by defeating Britain's John Wright in the final match. In 1952, when the

Monday, February 07, 2005

Kilby, Jack

In full �Jack St. Clair Kilby� American engineer and one of the inventors of the integrated circuit, a system of interconnected transistors on a single microchip. In 2000 Kilby was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics.

Sunday, February 06, 2005


The wide main street of the old town of Beaconsfield, bordered by 18th-century houses, contrasts with the modern town, in which commuters to London - 28 miles (39 km) to the southeast - reside. Beaconsfield was adopted by Benjamin Disraeli, the 19th-century British

Saturday, February 05, 2005


Southernmost departamento of Peru, bounded by the Pacific Ocean (southwest), Bolivia (northeast), and Chile (south). It occupies an area of 6,171 square miles (15,983 square km). In the coastal desert of the southwest, settlement depends on irrigation provided by the Locumba and Sama rivers. The northeast lies high in the Andes. The one area of concentrated settlement is around the city

Friday, February 04, 2005


City, Beaver county, western Pennsylvania, U.S. It lies along the Ohio River, just northwest of Pittsburgh. Settled about 1750 as a post for trade with Delaware, Iroquois, and Shawnee Indians, it was first known as Logstown and later renamed for �Queen� Aliquippa, probably an Iroquois. After the French and Indian War (1754 - 63), the Indian peoples lost their title to the land, and Logstown

Thursday, February 03, 2005

La Rochefoucauld Family

One of France's noblest families, traceable in Angoumois to the year 1019. Ducal titles belonging to it are: duke (duc) de La Rochefoucauld (1622); duke de La Roche-Guyon (1679); duke d'Anville (1732); duke d'Estissac; duke de Liancourt (1747); duke de Doudeauville (1780); duke (duca) di Bisaccia (Neapolitan title; 1851); and duke (duque) de Estr�es (Spanish title; 1892). Its two best-known members, Fran�ois VI, Duke de La Rochefoucauld,

Wednesday, February 02, 2005


Genus of marine or freshwater organisms called dinoflagellates. Members of the genus are bilaterally symmetrical with a delicate pellicle (or envelope) and disk-shaped chromatophores, which, when present, contain yellow, brown, green, or blue pigments. The genus is claimed by both botanists and zoologists, for, like all dinoflagellates, it has both plantlike and animal-like

Tuesday, February 01, 2005


In music, technique that has been used in some musical compositions roughly since World War I. Strictly speaking, a serial pattern in music is merely one that repeats over and over for a significant stretch of a composition. In this sense, some medieval composers wrote serial music, because they made use of isorhythm, which is a distinct rhythmic pattern that repeats